Prepared by Caroline Park, August 2012
with funding from the sponsors of the Ian Axford (New Zealand) Fellowships in Public Policy
Caroline Park is Deputy Section Chief for Sustainable Fisheries at the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of General Counsel’s Fisheries and Protected Resources Section in Silver Spring, Maryland. Caroline provides advice to NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service on the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, international fishery treaties and implementing statutes, and generally-applicable federal laws such as the National Environmental Policy Act and Administrative Procedure Act.
Prior to NOAA Caroline was a teaching fellow at Georgetown University Law Center and a trial attorney with the Environmental Crimes Section, US Department of Justice. She is a graduate of Stanford University (AB) and Georgetown University Law Center (JD, LLM).
During Caroline’s Ian Axford Fellowship exchange to New Zealand she was based at the Ministry for Primary Industries, where she researched US and New Zealand approaches to sustainable fisheries.
Managing marine fisheries is a complicated and expensive undertaking. Scientific research, enforcement, policy and administrative services are needed to address a broad range of fishery management challenges. These challenges include ensuring the sustainability of fish stocks, providing for the use of fishery resources by different sectors and mitigating the effects of fishing on the marine environment. Domestic and international mandates regarding ocean resources are dynamic, continually changing to reflect societal views.
The question for New Zealand and the United States is how to meet these challenges with ever-constrained financial resources. New Zealand’s answer, in part, has been to devolve certain responsibilities to commercial fisheries stakeholders. This report looks at service delivery models that have been adopted and how views on the role of the Crown and risk factored into those decisions. The report also compares approaches to fisheries management in US and New Zealand legislation.
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